Avinash Singh

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What are the chances of conducting the Baja SAE 2021?

BAJA SAEINDIA 2021: Event Update

16th July’20

Dear Teams,

Hope all of you are in the best of your health and spirit!
With reference to our last communication and after going through numerous suggestions received from multiple teams and colleges, in view of the current COVID-19 global pandemic situation, the BAJA SAEINDIA OC has decided to retain the decision of hosting the BAJA SAEINDIA 2021 season through digital platform.

Despite the ongoing pandemic situation, we have received overwhelming response covering registrations from 300+ colleges and teams for both mBAJA & eBAJA events. Post evaluating the overall scenario, it is in the best interests of the student community to have a fixed schedule for the event rather than an uncertain future plan, especially for the students who are pursuing final year curriculum.

The primary reasons for the modified event structure is the criticality of the pandemic situation and our responsibility for community health. Till now, there is no certainty of hosting an in-person event involving 10,000 students, judges, faculties and volunteers. Additionally, keeping in mind the academic pressure and exam schedules which teams will have in upcoming semesters upon returning to their respective campuses, we believe that the participants will find it extremely difficult to adhere to limited timelines and accommodate their budget requirements with respect to manufacturing, testing and validation of their ATV for an in person event. Moreover, we believe that postponing the event will hamper the schedule for the planned BAJA SAEINDIA 2022 edition.

In order to keep the learning opportunities provided by BAJA SAEINDIA intact in line with previous editions, BAJA SAEINDIA OC has decided to incorporate Virtual Dynamic Events with the help of Automotive Simulation Software combined with Digital Static Events for 2021 edition.

The BAJA SAEINDIA 2021 event is planned to be conducted in 2 legs. The first leg will kick-off with Preliminary Virtual Evaluation mostly in the month of Oct. ’20 (The exact event timelines will be released later), wherein teams would be required to submit the Design Report of their buggy along with Automotive/Rulebook quiz and evaluation. This evaluation will not be an elimination round, however the score obtained by teams in this round will be added to the final scores of the team for the year.

The second leg of BAJA SAEINDIA 2021 event including both Digital Static and Dynamic events will be held in January & March’21 for mBAJA & eBAJA teams respectively.

The Digital Static Event Evaluation will include events like Design Report, Cost Report, Sales Presentation, CAE Evaluation, 4WD Design Evaluation (Optional for 2021 event) etc. In addition to these events, the Organising Committee is working on introducing few special events which shall be disclosed in due course of time. Followed by this, the Dynamic events will be held virtually through Globally benchmarked Automotive Simulation software. The virtual dynamic events will include Acceleration performance, Brake performance, Gradeability performance, Maneuverability performance, Suspension and traction performance & All terrain performance of the Vehicle Design.

The registration fee for BAJA SAEINDIA 2021 season will be INR 20,000/- + 18% GST. Last date for submitting the Registration Fee will be 15th Aug ’20. All the teams will get an opportunity to edit their team member details in the month of Sept./ Oct. ’20 after completion of the first leg of the event. Teams are required to complete their SAEINDIA membership registration along with SAEINDIA collegiate club bank account formalities by Oct’ 20.

For details on membership or Collegiate Club, please visit www.saeindia.org or email at sowmiya@saindia.org & saeindia_indore@saeindia.org. BAJA SAEINDIA Organizing Committee



Future of EV Charging Infra: The Bigger Picture

The rise of battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in India will entail the development of a vast amount of new infrastructure, particularly charging stations. Although the deployment of this infrastructure undoubtedly represents a market opportunity, the size of it is still difficult to estimate. Despite initial scale advantages, small players who have what turns out to be the right solution may displace.

In this document, I hope to shed some limelight on the charging infrastructure’s evolving value chain — its shape, its potential risk, and possibilities for value-creation.

How does it look through the Fish-eye lens?

The charging infrastructure necessary to stimulate the widespread adoption of increasingly available EVs in the marketplace remains to be built. As the mainstream OEMs begin to roll out EVs, the role of charging infrastructure evolves from being an awareness tool to becoming a commercially viable business venture.

The billion-dollar question today is:

How can companies package a commercially viable proposition and differentiate themselves in a non-existent, yet crowded and complex marketplace like India?

Before getting a sneak-peek on India, let us analyze the bigger picture here.

Worldwide, I have identified 140+ companies that have staked a claim to the emerging EV charging infrastructure, but despite all their procedures, the shape of the value chain is vague. To try to decode this chain, I closely analyzed some of these companies and chose distinct business activities that were categorized together to develop five potential business strategy variants. These business strategies are at different levels of complexity within the value chain and consequently, bring different risks and rewards to the participants.

The five business strategies will evolve to maturity following different timetables as they face different barriers to entry and barriers to survival.

The growth of the EV charging infrastructure is set to be an exciting chapter in the vehicle electrification process. The purpose of this analysis is to help read the market as it evolves.

The current state of the charging industry

Overall market

At the moment, stakeholders continue to wrangle over standards, each championing a favorite and self-centered solution. Behind the scenes, some governments are trying to decide how involved they want to be in the rollout and whether they need to intervene. Well, that’s how it is.

As described in our section on regional development, market strategies differ significantly between Asia, North America, and Europe, and those differences may harden into different regional standards, slowing growth for all.

Customer focus

The most common charging configuration is likely to be chargers at both home and work. However, it can be evidently identified several other potential customers such as hotels and restaurants, car rental/sharing, fleet managers and gas stations. One emerging obstacle: an unarticulated value proposition for potential hosts of charging stations, such as parking lot owners.

Disruptive threats

The barrier to entry is low. New entrants may emerge from multiple industries. The market also faces several possible substitutes that could jeopardize several business strategies. However, the barriers exponentially rise with the market maturity of a particular concept.

Supplier power

At this stage, suppliers are strong players in the value chain. Some have already moved up the value chain and become manufacturers of charging infrastructure through strategic partnering. In India, the Suppliers are highly dependent on imported OEMs, so most of the value of the supply chain is consumed in initial stages only.

Introducing the EV charging value chain

The basic elements of the emerging EV charging value chain are clear. It must transfer energy from an outlet to a vehicle. It must track information about the energy provider and the energy recipient. It must include a payment system easy for the consumer to understand and easy for the energy distributor to integrate within pre-existing billing systems — and of course, it must meet government regulations and carmaker requirements.

However, a number of important elements remain fuzzy.

• How soon will EVs become a mass-market phenomenon – or should we ask: How far away is this from happening?

• What will the plug sizes be?

• Some charging standards are not yet globally approved.

• Whether EV charging should connect to a smart grid is an open debate.

• Some possible service offerings are contingent on the development of the smart grid, but should the initial network be built with this compatibility in mind?

• Where are the boundaries between the different stakeholders in the charging infrastructure?

• What are the commercial risks and rewards of building, owning or operating various products and services in the charging infrastructure?

• What are the potential revenue streams and the associated risks, and what business strategy is best placed to capture them?

• What are the capital and operating costs associated with the charging Infrastructure?

For the purpose of this analysis, we envision the EV charging value chain as a combination of four spheres inter-connected by over 18 activities.

1. The charging infrastructure sphere comprises all services ranging from manufacturing the charging stations to setting up the physical infrastructure and managing the delivery of energy through the network of charging stations.

2. The utility sphere involves activities ranging from generating and distributing energy to billing the end-user for consumption.

3. The OEM sphere comprises all activities associated with the vehicle, ranging from selling to maintenance, operating and up to the end of its life cycle.

4. These three spheres revolve around the customer sphere, which is the private or business user of EVs, and encompasses the services they need over their ownership cycle of the vehicle.

A further dimension of analysis is that the 18 distinct activities critical to the EV charging value chain have been differentiated based on being a product (hardware or software) or a service.

Below are some analysis charts by Ernst and Young’s Automotive center for the value chain and market impact of 18 business activities categorized into 5 given business strategies.

Stay tuned with us to know about the market complexity of charging Infrastructure in India.





The ADALM-PLUTO Active Learning Module (PlutoSDR) is an easy-to-use tool available from Analog Devices Inc. (ADI) that can be used to introduce fundamentals of software-defined radio (SDR) or radio frequency (RF) or communications as advanced topics in electrical engineering in a self- or instructor-led setting. The PlutoSDR allows students to better understand the real-world RF around them, and is applicable for all students at all levels, from all backgrounds. Early learning in a hands-on manner with the PlutoSDR will ensure a solid foundation for students to build on as they pursue science, technology, or engineering degrees.

The PlutoSDR Active Learning Module is a tool that closes the relationship between theory and practical radio frequency activities of the user. It provides a personal portable lab that, when used with a host, can augment the learning that takes place in the classroom. A variety of software packages such as MATLAB or Simulink provide an innovative graphical user interface (GUI), allowing intuitive usage and minimizing the learning curve, enabling students to learn faster, work smarter, and explore more!

Key Highlights

  • Portable, cost-effective, self-contained RF learning and experimentation platform
  • Based on Analog Devices® AD9363 highly integrated RF agile transceiver and Xilinx Zynq® Z-7010 FPGA
  • RF coverage from 325 MHz to 3.8 GHz, with up to 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth
  • One transmitter and one receiver, half or full duplex
  • MATLAB® and Simulink® support
  • HDL Coder targeting support

You can read the complete article on Adalm Pluto on MATLAB Digest

Centre of gravity, Roll center, Roll axis and some important factors

Before making a racing car,the team first needs to decide the aim i.e what parameters needs to be fulfilled.

The parameters includes:

  1. Maximum speed.
  2. Vehicle’s Endurance on the track.
  3.  safety


Maximum speed: Speed can be increased by equip ting the vehicle with upgraded EV power train system consisting battery and motor that can provide high power outputs.If that was the only case than vehicles today would have been much bulkier than what they are now.

There is one more aspect which plays very important role in decreasing the speed of the vehicle i.e mass.

We all know,

a = F / m

Where a is the acceleration of vehicle,F is force that acts between tire and road that moves vehicle forward and m is the mass of vehicle.

Since the mass and acceleration have inverse relationship therefore on increasing mass the acceleration decreases.


Endurance: Endurance is basically is measure of how long, a vehicle can can run on track maintaining its performance in lap time scenario.

In the above event the vehicle’s speed,mileage and durability is put to test

There are two major factors that is needed to be looked after i.e weight of car and air drag.

Air drag is basically resistance that air provides to the moving vehicle.

Every vehicle has a limited power source,the vehicle needs to overcome its weight and air drag in that limit only, for a long period of time.


Drag force:

FD = Cd * A *(ρ * v2)/2

Where CD is the drag force,A is the reference area,ρ is density of fluid,V is flow velocity relative to the object.


Here density of air is constant,to reduce drag we can’t really compensate velocity as it is an important aspect that is needed in a race car.

Some Measures to reduce drag and weight of the vehicle:


  1. CD depends on the surface roughness of the exposed part to air therefore by polishing the surface of vehicle,the co-efficient of drag can be minimized.
  2. A is the area of exposed part,usually front nose section of race car.By decreasing the surface area in such a way so that minimum surface is exposed to incoming air,the drag force can be minimized.Therefore these days maximum vehicle have spherical air foil shape for which surface area is minimum.
  3. Weight of vehicle can reduced by using lighter,composite material for building vehicle’s frame,which are strong, durable and have higher strength to weight ratio.
  4. Components with less weight and high efficiency can used in place of bulkier ones.


Center  of gravity and its importance in vehicle dynamics :

 What is mint by the center of gravity?
Center of gravity is that point at which a system or  vehicles body behaves as if all its mass were centered at that point. Acceleration, braking and cornering forces act through that point. 

What is the importance of the CG in vehicle dynamics?

The vehicle is in motion is subjected with different number of forces like centrifugal force on cornering,load transfer in braking and acceleration.All these forces are calculated with respect to position of centre of gravity.

The dynamics of vehicle can be studied by observing the behaviour of CG in dynamic condition.One can really decide its position,as CG is the just average value of concentrated mass.

All the above mentioned forces tend to disturb the stability of vehicle in motion therefore one can optimize its position so that magnitude of above forces can be minimized.


Roll center and roll axis:

Roll center for a vehicle is a point at about which the cornering forces in the suspension system acts or is point about which the body tend to roll on cornering situation.


The figure shows roll center of rear side of vehicle

In the above figure there are two wheels,four suspension links,two for left and two for the right.The line extended from upper and lower wishbone links of left meets at point A.In the same way we get point B.Intersection between line extended from B and A connecting tire contact patch is the roll center.


This is for a rear side of vehicle and similar procedure is followed for a front side.In this way we get two roll centre one for rear and one for front.

The line joining both the roll center is called roll axis 

 Conclusion: This blog discusses some important factors and its role in vehicle’s design and dynamics.


POSTED ON-https://www.teamswag.in/post/centre-of-gravity-roll-center-roll-axis-and-some-important-factors-vd-part-1-by-shrey-mishra


It is a saying that ‘chalti ka naam gadi’(one which is running, that’s the car) but if it doesn’t stop at driver’s will; then still it is car but of YAMRAJ(lord of death). That’s why we have brakes in car which makes your ride safe, thrilling and they keep your meeting with god canceled. Now you are well aware of importance of brakes.The engineering behind the brakes is complicated. You can read our blogs to get more information regarding the functioning of brakes. This blog is for the different types of brake lines.

Some terminologies related to Brake line-

1. Brake line – rigid steel lines that run from master cylinder to the hoses.Can’t handle suspension travel and side by side movement during turning (fig 1).

2. Hoses – flexible rubber tubes made of rubber which carries fluid from brake fixed to car’s body to the brake caliper on the wheel.This is also known as soft line of brake system (fig 2).

                            FIG                                                                                             FIG2
Brake system overview : In a hydraulic brake system, pressing the pedal will push a plunger into the master cylinder, forcing brake fluid through the rest of the system to the brake calipers or wheel cylinders. Running from the master cylinder are rigid steel lines that connect to flexible hoses. The flexible hose connects from the hardline to the brake caliper or wheel cylinder. These flexible lines allow for suspension travel and side to side movement during turning. Without these flexible lines, the hardline would become fatigued very quickly, eventually leading to failure. From pedal to pad the brake system goes pedal > master cylinder >brake fluid > brake calipers/wheel cylinders. Types of brake lines – There are four types of hard line used for braking systems – 1. Steel 2. Soft steel 3. Stainless steel 4. Nickle copper alloy Galvanized mild steel is the most commonly used material for brake line. For more information you can visit – http://knowhow.napaonline.com/tips-for-bending-brake-lines-and-fuel-lines/

Types of hoses – There are two types hoses based on the type of material they are made of.

1. Rubber hoses – Rubber makes for great brake lines because it is durable, resilient, and will last for a long time without having to be replaced.Most of the car companies provide these hoses in new cars because it fits the bill easily with a satisfactory performance. But rubber tends to flex under heavy use.(fig. 3)

2. Braided stainless steel hoses – stainless steel lines have an inner tube wrapped in a stainless steel mesh. These lines are much stronger than rubber, but the increased strength comes with a larger price tag as well.These are used in high performance cars like ATV(all terrain vehicle).(fig. 4)

Benefits of rubber hoses –
1. Low cost
2. Sufficient performance for non-performance oriented drivers.
3. Low maintenance cost
Demerits of rubber hoses –
1. Tends to flex under heavy use
2. When pressure builds, expands outward resulting in spongy or squishy brake feel.
Benefits of stainless steel hoses – These types of brake hoses do not flex and expand under the extreme pressures when the brakes are applied heavily. The benefits are:
1. Better braking response
2. Much firmer feel at the pedal
3. Longer brake line life
Demerits of stainless steel brake hoses –
1. Expensive
2. Requires more maintenance
3. The braided mesh covering can allow small dust and dirt particles to get between the braiding and hydraulic line. Over time, these dirt particles will wear away at the inner lining and will eventually cause a leak.

Which one is feasible –

Rubber lines are the perfect solution for non-performance oriented drivers. For people looking for a little more from their brake system, stainless lines are the better choice. Rubber lines are not reinforced like stainless lines, therefore when pressure builds in them, they will expand outward. That expansion results in a spongy or squishy pedal feel. By upgrading to a set of stainless steel lines over the rubber lines, you will reduce the outward expansion of the line. This in turn will reduce the spongy feel in your brake pedal and give you a more accurate pedal feel. An accurate pedal feel will allow for more sensitive braking adjustments and will also increase pedal feedback into the system.

Therefore, feasibility or choice of hoses depends upon type the of vehicle they are used. In high performance oriented vehicles like ATV braided stainless steel brake hoses are must i.e. more feasible.

Layout of brake system – fig 5 shows all the arrangements ,joints, lines, and hoses of braking system.

                                                                           FIG 5.

So, make proper choice of brake line and enjoy the thrill of riding with safety.


POSTED BY- https://www.teamswag.in/post/brake-system-by-aman-jain

AICTE Asks Students Not To Take Summer Internships In Other Organisations.


The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) has asked its affiliated institutes to instruct students to not take up summer internships in other organisations.

If you’re a college student affected by coronavirus, time to start your online summer training at home.



AICTE has also asked the institutes to provide their students internships in which they can work from home. This advise from the technical education regulator comes as the country is on lockdown due to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Students take summer internships during this time of the year where they engage in real-time projects.

“#AICTE directs all its Approved Institutes to instruct students NOT to take up any Summer #Internships outside organizations. Instead colleges/institutes should give challenging problems as #internship which can be done #FromHome,” the Council’s first tweet reads.




For some students in India & US, school’s and colleges are already out for the summer — sort of. A growing number of colleges and universities around the country are canceling in-person classes and asking students to leave campus as a precaution to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Some, like Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Berea College, have asked students to vacate campus for the rest of the semester. Others, like the University of Washington and The Ohio State University, are moving their classes online for a few weeks while they continue to monitor the situation.



Points to be remembered who are participating for SAEINDIA BAJA event for the first time?

It will be a whole lot of new experience and roller coaster ride for your team.

Some of the points that you can keep in your mind are:-

  • You have started this to learn something which your engineering courses will add up to it. Don’t go for shortcuts. Learn to Improvise and Adapt.
  • Everything is here to sort out don’t hurry for design, team building, finances.
  • The most important point is to keep your Basics and ethics correct and aligned towards your goal.
  • Follow some goods teams of India and International, so you can cope up with the new design and current trends.
  • Start early, time is a big barrier. Use it effectively. For starters they think that we will cover it in end but if you have to take my advice start early. Because design needs and will take time.
  • In start never think that who is not supporting you. Be positive and keep pushing the limits. Never Quit.
  • Don’t go for big targets, break it into pieces and move according to plan. Eg., You can not design the whole chassis in a day you have to start with a link and that matters the most.
  • Keep teams communication above all, talk to all the members about every plan and action. You will understand it’s importance after some time. ( DONT GO FOR INDIVIDUAL FELICITATIONS).
  • If doubt asks, don’t make personal decisions. Follow the BAJA Forum.
  • Hard work to Work Hard.

What do anyone gain from SAEINDIA Events?

SAE Events are a lot more than a learning experience. It’s a life and personality changing decision.

You might not experience it in your first year or work in the team at a junior level. But, as you be a part of a team for a few more years and are given the responsibility for the whole car/team, Car/Buggy starts becoming your life your passion for your love. It gives you theoretical knowledge, practical application of the textbooks, hands-on experience with the machines, and national level exposure to other teams. Along with it, it enhances your soft skills like team and time management, leadership skills, teamwork, self-confidence.

The entire project is full of frequent ups and downs which are breathtaking but yet exciting. It makes you realize the extent of your limits and achieve you to cross them further. It is a year of complete productivity that will get the efficient, sincere and confident part out of you.

What is the procedure for the calculation of the diameter of the drive shaft of a BAJA buggy?

Yes, there is a procedure in our design book.

If you are going to build a BAJA buggy you have to go reverse that is by applying Market availability of drive shaft. Whatever you calculate is impractical or not available in the market. So the best procedure is to do a market study and then decide. Do reverse engineering. The overall calculation is based on torque and speed. Always remember your theoretical knowledge is important but not always useful for practical purposes.