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Camber: What Is It And How much you should keep?

While the eye-catching tuning phenomenon known as “demon camber” or “hella flush” doesn’t provide much in the way of performance – in fact it hurts it – its extreme styling brings the viewer’s eyes into relation with the concept of camber, something which evades casual drivers and even a few petrolheads.


With its wheels mounted strangely, as if the suspension were broken, this car’s unconventional stance makes for strange reactions from both the layman and the enthusiast alike.

In learning a bit about how camber works, its role in tire wear, cornering performance, ease of adjustment, and the limitations various suspension designs have when it comes to camber, any car’s handling can be quickly optimized for a reasonable cost.

Wheel Camber

What is Camber?

Camber is the angle at which the wheel and tire stand relative to the road – assuming it is perfectly flat. The easiest way to envision what camber looks like is to view the wheel and tire head on. When stationary, the tire maintains a static camber angle, whereas when the car is cornering, due to body roll, the contact patch is reduced. In order to counteract this effect and have the greatest amount of tire on the road while cornering, camber settings must be taken into consideration and adjusted accordingly.

While conventional thinking might lead one to believe that the wheel is perfectly perpendicular to the road on which it sits, it is often intentionally tilted slightly to counteract the forces imparted on it by cornering. If the top of the tire is leaned in closer to the center of the car, that particular wheel and tire exhibit what is called negative camber. Positive camber, on the other hand, has the top of the wheel pointed outwards. While this article delves into the merits of negative camber, there are benefits to some positive camber in racing as well. However, this situation is typically isolated to circle track racing where cars run on banked race tracks.

How Does it Work?
Negative camber is the characteristic generally desired in performance driving. When we use the term, we’re referring to static negative camber. That is, the wheel and tire should exhibit some negative camber while sitting. When you barrel into a corner, the laws of physics have you, the wheels, and the tires pushed toward the outside of the corner.

Tire-Camber-CorneringWhen the wheels and tires are pushed outwards and the car’s body rolls, the contact patch, or the area of the tire which comes into contact with the surface of the road, diminishes significantly as it rolls over onto its outer shoulder.

Negative camber is implemented so that when the car is cornering and the wheel is rolling over and gaining positive camber (from body roll, not suspension travel), the static negative camber should correct whatever effect leaning and lateral load have on the wheel and tire; resulting in a near-upright tire and the greatest possible contact patch.

Simply put, negative camber helps counteract the natural tendency for a tire to roll onto its outer shoulder while cornering, keeping the contact patch squarely on the road while cornering allow for more grip and higher cornering speeds.

There are some reasons that your car likely did not roll off of the showroom floor with optimum camber for the track. Too much negative camber causes the car to tramline; or follow cracks or imperfections in the road, and also have an excessive sensitivity to the road’s crown (an engineered 1 to 2 percent curve that promotes water drainage on roads). It also isn’t very friendly to tires, causing them to wear at a significantly higher rate. As a general rule, a car that’s sole purpose is commuting should have minimal negative camber – unless you don’t mind replacing tires regularly.

The trade-off present with adding negative camber is that it often reduces the initial turn-in of the car somewhat. Static negative camber places a smaller percentage of the tire’s carcass on the road when moving in a straight line and consequently, when the tire hasn’t been leaned over completely – at the entry of the corner, for instance – there may be a sense of diminished grip until the car is “loaded up” and the contact patch is widened.


An infrared thermometer is a useful tool for assessing whether a camber setting is working well for the car. However, tire temperature rapidly cools so readings need to be taken as quickly as possible after a session.


How Much is Too Much?

How much negative camber do you want? It depends on what kind of suspension setup your car has. Cars with MacPherson struts need a significant amount of static negative camber because they have only a moderate camber gain under compression, when compared to a car with unequal-length control arms. When combined with the effect of body roll, the end result is usually less negative camber than desired, therefore requiring the addition of extra static camber. Cars with unequal length A-arms or multi-link suspension do not exhibit this shortcoming; they’re engineered to have a faster, more progressive rate of negative camber gain during cornering.

Determining what camber setting yields an evenly-applied contact patch can be done through measuring the heat at the inside, the center and the outside of the tire’s contact patch. By using a thermometer one can determine if one side of the tire is being worn more or less than the other. Generally speaking, the inside of the tire should be 10-15 degrees hotter than the outside, depending on the track and the temperature measuring points. If the inside is exceedingly hot and wearing faster than the outside, there is too much negative camber. When this is present with the front wheels, the effect is diminished braking capability, poor turn-in and pronounced mid-corner understeer. When the rear tires exhibit too much negative camber, the effect is oversteer and a reduced ability to accelerate cleanly out of corners.

The opposite, excessive positive camber, shows up as a reversal of the aforementioned temperature spread. The outside is excessively hot and wears much faster than the inside of the tire. This leads to understeer mid-corner after the car has made its initial turn, and is usually the result of too much roll. It is because of this that excessive roll must be limited with anti-roll bars.

How Do I Adjust Camber?

Double_wishbone_suspensionTo make adjustments to a MacPherson-suspension car, adding camber plates is a safe, easy and cost-effective way to doing it. Camber plates use an adjustable top mount which relocates upper shock mount to a retainer plate which slides laterally on a grooved track. Because the strut attaches directly to the hub, adjusting camber from the top mount is possible. Simply slide the adjuster toward the center of the car for increased camber or outward for less.

This is an attractive approach to adjusting camber especially if you autocross/track your car and want one camber setting when battling the clock, and another when driving home on the freeway. The addition of camber plates also spruces up the appearance of your engine bay.

Camber bolts are another cost effective way of adjusting camber easily. Camber bolts are eccentric, meaning they have an off-centered lobe which alters the horizontal position of the knuckle slightly from the strut, therefore changing the camber angle. Camber bolts are also referred to as “crash bolts” because they are used to align cars which have been bent in an accident. Due to their design, they’re thinner than standard bolts and can be weaker. For that reason, it is important to make sure camber bolts are of high quality and sourced from a reputable manufacturer.


Here is an example of an adjustable upper control arm. Notice the heim joints at the mounting point. These can be screwed out or in which can effectively pull the top of the tire in or push it out.

For cars with a multilink or unequal length A-arm setup, the shock/strut does not directly control camber. In order to change the camber on cars with these suspension setups, one of two things needs to happen. One, the mounting points of one control arm need to be moved; this is often accomplished on factory suspensions by rotating an eccentric bolt that carries the control-arm-to-chassis mounting points. Or two, the length of one (or both) of the control arms need to changed. Be warned that altering the length of either of the control arms significantly will affect camber gain during suspension travel in addition to static camber.

If the car in question doesn’t have an adjustable upper control arm or upper control arm mounts provided from the factory, nor is there an aftermarket adjustable upper control arm, sometimes shims can be used behind the control-arm-to-chassis mounting point to adjust the camber – this is often the case in older vehicles.


For anyone seriously considering the performance potential or their car, camber is something that should not be overlooked. The feeling of increased grip and poise mid-corner is something that is sure to plaster an ear-to-ear grin on anyone’s face. Because most street cars are not designed with the race track in mind, their camber settings are somewhat conservative to ensure even tire wear in normal driving conditions.

smaller MK4_8614

Minute camber adjustments can make a standard car significantly more agile. As we’ve learned, when considering suspension adjustments it’s important to take into account your suspension design, but more importantly; use a scientific approach to determining what kind of camber is appropriate for your car. Though adding some negative camber will allow for higher cornering speeds and a more progressive feeling at the limit of adhesion, it can lead to premature tire wear, whereas improperly adjusted camber can result in instability and reduced traction.

Don’t let that prevent you getting out there and experimenting; it’s fun and educational. One parting suggestion: don’t forget to see if your tire provider will sell in bulk.

Summer Training Programme 2020


BAJA Tutor in association with DIYguru will be conducting BAJA Summer Training 2020, Program on “BAJA ATV Design & Manufacturing” for mBAJA and eBAJA at selected locations in India.

Training Duration : 16 Days

Training Venue :




Training Module :

3 Days – Basics of Automotive Engineering + Vehicle Dynamics
5 Days – Design & Analysis (CATIA + SolidWorks + ANSYS + ADAMS Car + Lotus)
8 Days – Manufacturing of ATV (Re-Engineering + Assembly + Welding + Testing)

Accommodation  Fee : 3,000 Rs

Training Fee : 8000 Rs + Taxes

Certification : Certificate of Industrial Training from PHD Chamber of Commerce & Industry India, Maruti Suzuki & DIYguru

No. of seats : 30

Registration Link : Click Here

Contact :

BAJA Tutor training & workshops in the Media :




Glossary Transmission System


Accumulator: A device that cushions the motion of clutch and servo action in an automatic transmission in order to provide smooth shifting at various throttle openings.

Accumulator valve: A valve that regulates accumulator action based on load and throttle opening.

Adaptive Learn Automatic Transmission: Many of the newer automatic transmissions made today can “learn” and adapt to driving conditions, altering shift feel, shift points and other transmission functions to produce the most efficient operation. Adaptive learn transmissions can also compensate for clutch pack wear to a certain extent.

Aftermarket: Parts and equipment sold to consumers after the vehicle has been manufactured, including high performance components and often refers to parts made by companies other that the original manufacturer.

Air check: An automatic transmission “bench test” done during assembly that is used to check the hydraulic integrity of clutch packs, band servos, accumulators and valves

All Wheel Drive (AWD): All-Wheel drive is a four-wheel drive system that has no two-speed transfer case. It normally operates in a similar fashion to full-time or permanent four-wheel drive and can have a mechanical torque biasing, a wet clutch or viscous clutch to control front to rear biasing.

Alloy: A metal containing additions of other metallic or nonmetallic elements to enhance specific properties such as strength and corrosion resistance.

Anti-Foam additive: An additive that reduces foaming caused by the churning action of transmission gears in transmission fluid.

Assembly Lube: A lubricant used to coat parts during initial assembly.

Automatic transmission: A transmission that shifts itself. A torque converter is usually utilized instead of a pedal operated clutch to connect the transmission and engine.

A/T: An abbreviation for automatic transmission.

Automatic transmission fluid (ATF): A usually red, mineral or petroleum-based fluid used to lubricate, transfer power, and cool an automatic transmission.

Automatic Transmission Rebuilders Association (ATRA): A trade organization for transmission repair shops.

Axial Thrust Load: The external loading of force acting lengthwise along a shaft.

Axle ratio: The relationship between a vehicle’s driveshaft and its axle. For example, a 3.73 axle ratio means that the drive shaft turns 3.73 times for every time that the wheels turn.


Band: A device in utilized in many automatic transmissions whose function is to wrap around a clutch drum in order to stop its rotation.

Bearing: A component having an inner and outer race with steel balls or rollers used to support a rotating component.

Belleville Spring: A diaphragm type spring used to release a multiple-disc clutch set.

Billet: A solid bar of metal or a component machined from a billet.

Brake Torque:See powerbrake.

Blue Plate: A high performance automatic transmission clutch plate manufactured by Raybestos.

Boost: Supplemental pressure regulator pressure used in reverse and high load/heavy throttle conditions.

Boost valve: Valve acting on a pressure regulator valve to raise line pressure. See boost.

Bushing: A usually bronze sleeve that serves as a bearing surface.


Carbon fiber: A very strong, lightweight, synthetic fiber. Carbon fiber material is sometimes found in certain automatic transmission torque converter clutches.

Carrier Bearing: A bearing that supports the carrier in a differential.

Center differential: A device found in all-wheel-drive vehicles which biases torque from front to rear and in a tight turn it allows the front and rear wheels to turn at different speeds. A center diff can be a gear type unit, a viscous clutch or a combination of both.

Check Engine Light (CEL): A light which is illuminated on the instrument cluster when the vehicles’ computer detects a fault.

Clutch: A device for connecting and disconnecting the power flow between the engine and transmission.

Clutch Drum: A component of an automatic transmission which houses clutch discs.

Clutch hub: A component that has clutches splined to its outside diameter, often found inside a clutch drum.

Clutch-release Bearing: A bearing which is used to disengage the clutch when the clutch pedal is depressed. Also known as a throw out bearing.

Clutch plate: A friction lined disk designed to resist movement between two components; part of a multi disk clutch pack. See “friction disk”

Crossleak: Undesirable leakage of hydraulic pressure into another hydraulic circuit. A cross leak can be caused by things such as a warped valve body, a worn sealing ring, blown gasket, etc.

Converter: See torque converter.

Cryogenic treatment: A tempering process for metals where a component is brought to at least -300 degrees Fahrenheit and then slowly brought to a much higher temperature in order to achieve more desirable metallurgical properties.

Centrifugal apply: The unintentional and unwanted application of an automatic transmission clutch pack that is supposed to be released caused by residual ATF moving to the outside of the drum’s inside diameter under high RPM’s.

Chatter: An undesirable shaking or shuddering action in a clutch or clutch pack caused by a rapid grip and slip action

Check ball: A device that permits the flow of fluid in one direction only.

Coefficient of friction: The measure of the resistance of one surface moving against another.

Close ratio: A transmission with narrow spreads between gear ratios.

Converter Clutch: See “lock-up clutch”.

Converter pressure: The operating pressure within a torque converter.

Compound Planetary Gear Set: A gear set that contains more than just the three basic members of a simple planetary gear set. In a three or four speed automatic transmission, it is normally the only planetary set.

Coupling phase: Condition of torque converter operation when the impeller and turbine rotate together at the same speed and end the torque multiplication phase. This normally occurs around 30 MPH.

Countershaft: The shaft that supports the cluster-gear set in a manual transmission and which rotates in the opposite direction of the engine crankshaft.

Cooler: See “transmission oil cooler”.

Cooler flush: 1) The act of flushing a transmission oil cooler, especially after a transmission failure, repair or rebuild. 2) An aerosol product used to flush an automatic transmission cooler.

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT): A CVT transmission employs a steel belt riding on two pulleys and can vary the effective diameter of the drive pulley and driven pulley to create a broad range of drive ratios, rather than shifting between gear ratios as does a conventional automatic transmission.

Core Charge: “Core” is an acronym for “Cash on Return”. It refers to a refundable deposit or charge on rebuildable parts. Core charges are refunded when a rebuildable component is returned to the manufacturer. Core charges are usually collected for engines, valve bodies, alternators, transmissions and torque converters and are a means of insuring that a rebuildable component is returned to the manufacturer in a timely manner.

Crush Sleeve: A sleeve that is on the pinion gear in the differential, it is designed to contract when torqued to specifications hence keeping tension on the pinion nut while the pinion bearings are properly preloaded.

Cut loose: See “flare”.


Damper clutch: See “torque converter clutch”.

Detent: A combination of a spring loaded ball and a recess to hold a gear selector in the gear range which is selected.

Detent downshift: See “kickdown”.

Differential: The section of a transfer case, transaxle or axle assembly that allows the wheels to revolve at different speeds during turns.

Diff: An abbreviation for differential.

Downshift: The automatic shift from a high gear ratio to a lower gear ratio.

Downshift clunk: An abrupt downshift, especially during closed throttle operation.

Dowel pin: A round pin used to align or locate two or more parts. An example of this is the two alignment pins that locate a transmission’s bell housing to an engine block.


Engagement: The application of a clutch.

Electronic Pressure Control Solenoid (EPC): A solenoid whose function is to vary transmission line pressure in proportion to load and/or throttle opening

Electronically controlled transmission (ECT): A transmission that is electronically controlled by the vehicle’s computerized electronic control system.


Final drive: The ring, pinion and differential gears that provide power flow to the drive wheels of a vehicle.

Final drive ratio: The ratio between the drive pinion and ring gear. See “gear ratio” and “axle ratio”

Flare: A drivability concern referring to a shift that is accompanied by a rise in engine RPM’s; a short slip that occurs during a shift.

Fluid coupling: A device in an automatic transmission containing two rotating members, one of which transmits power to the other via fluid flow. This is the precursor to the modern torque converter.

Flywheel: Part of a clutch assembly that is bolted to the engine crankshaft with a surface that provides an area for the clutch disc to contact during clutch engagement. The flywheel often has a starter ring gear on its outside diameter.

Forward clutch: A clutch that is engaged whenever the vehicle moves forward, controlled by the valve-body forward circuit.

4WD: A term used for four-wheel drive.

Four-wheel drive: A vehicle having drive wheels in the front and rear, so all four wheels can be driven. Also called “4WD” or “4X4”.

Freewheel: 1) To turn without resistance. 2) A mechanical device in which a driving member imparts motion to a driven member in one direction, but not the other. See “sprag” and “roller clutch”

Friction disk: A disc with a friction material on one or both sides, such as a clutch disk. Also called a “friction”

Friction material: Material used for friction surfacing on a clutch disk or friction disk.

Friction-modified fluid: Automatic transmission fluid that provides smooth automatic shifts; designed to slip slightly. Friction modified fluid should only be used where specified by the manufacturer. Examples of this are Chrysler ATF +4, Mitsubishi Diamond, Honda, etc.

Front wheel drive: A drive system that transmits power through the front wheels.

Front pump: A pump, located at the front of the transmission, driven by the engine through the torque-converter housing, to provide fluid pressure and volume to operate the transmission whenever the vehicle is running.

Furnace brazing: A welding process used to repair/strengthen complex castings, often used when upgrading torque converters.

Flexplate: A round, slightly flexible, steel or aluminum component used to transfer power from the crankshaft to the torque converter. A flexplate often, but not always has the starter ring gear attached to its outside diameter.


Garage shift: The initial shift into drive or reverse from park or neutral.

Gear ratio: The relationship between a driving and a driven gear. For example, a driving gear that revolves three times for each driven-gear revolution has a 3 to 1 or “3:1” ratio.

Gears: Machined components containing teeth that mesh that transmit power, or turning force, from one shaft to another.

Governor: A speed-sensitive centrifugal assembly in the automatic transmission driven by the output shaft, to produce a road speed hydraulic pressure signal to help determine when shifting is to occur. Governor pressure normally equates to approximately 1 PSI per mile per hour of vehicle speed. A governor is not required in modern day electronically controlled transmissions, which utilize an electronic vehicle speed sensor (VSS) to determine road speed..

Governor pressure: The pressure signal produced by the governor.


High clutch: Automatic transmission used for high gear. Often known as a “direct clutch”.

High Reverse clutch: Automatic transmission used for high and for reverse gear. Often known as a “direct clutch”

High stall: Refers to a torque converter design that is configured for a higher that stock stall speed.

Harsh engagement: An abrupt initial shift into drive or reverse.. See also “garage shift”

Hard parts: Automatic transmission components that are not contained in a rebuild kit and are not normally replaced during a transmission rebuild unless they are worn or damaged. An example of this is a transmission case.

Heat treatment: Various techniques of controlled heating and cooling applied to a metal component to provide the desired properties.

Helical Gears: Gears that are cylindrical in shape and mesh between parallel centerlines. The ‘”helical” teeth are machined at an angle across the face of the gear.

Heli-Coil: A screw-thread repair insert.

Hunting shift: Drivability concern of an automatic transmission that will upshift, downshift, and upshift rapidly under certain conditions, especially climbing a grade.

Hypoid gear set: Two gears that transmit power at a 90 degree angle. An example is a differential ring and pinion gearset.


Impeller: The “pump” in a torque converter. Rotating at crankshaft speed, it generates the fluid flow through the torque converter.

Input shaft: The transmission shaft that receives power from the engine. Input shafts are splined into the clutch disk on manual transmissions and into the torque converter’s turbine on automatic transmissions.

Input clutch: The transmission clutch that receives power from the engine, normally attached to the input shaft. See “forward clutch”

Intermediate clutch: Clutch pack used for second or “intermediate” gear.


JATCO: Japanese Automatic Transmission Company. Transmissions manufactured by JATCO are found in various vehicles, especially Nissans.


Kickdown: A full throttle downshift to a lower gear in an automatic transmission, also known as “passing gear”.

Kickdown Band: Chrysler and Mitsubishi nomenclature for the band used for second or second and fourth gear shifts. More commonly know as an “intermediate band” or “2/4 band”.

Kiggly Kit: An adapter kit that allows the swap of an early (6 Bolt) Mitsubishi engine into a second generation vehicle with the matching 2G automatic transmission.


Lip seal: A rubber seal with a beveled edge that seals against pressure. An example is a transmission pump seal.

Limited-slip differential (LSD): A differential capable of keeping both axle shafts rotating at the same speed, regardless of unequal tire-to-road surface friction.

Line pressure: The base operating pressure in an automatic transmission. Line pressure is normally created by pump pressure modified by the pressure regulator valve based on throttle opening, load and driving conditions

Locking hubs: A clutch in a wheel that permits it to be disengaged from the axle shaft and made to be free-wheeling when a driving force is not required. Locking hubs can be found on some front wheel 4X4 applications.

Lock-up torque converter: A hydraulic torque converter in an automatic transmission having a mechanical clutch that effectively locks the engine to the transmission input shaft at cruising speeds. Lock-up torque converters provide more efficient operation and better fuel economy by eliminating slippage between the engine and transmission at highway speeds.

Lockup clutch: The clutch (or multi-disk clutch pack) found in a lock-up torque converter. Also known as a torque converter clutch or TCC.

Low / Reverse clutch or Low / Reverse band: Friction element used to hold a planetary carrier in order to achieve manual low gear and reverse in an automatic transmission.

Low Stall: A torque converter that has a lower than stock stall speed, typically used in diesel and heavy duty towing applications.


Malfunction indicator light (MIL): See “check engine light”.

Manual valve body: An aftermarket valve body configuration that forces an automatic transmission to be operated by manual shifting only. Manual valve bodies are usually found in drag race applications.

Manual valve: A valve, located in the valve body that regulates fluid flow from the valve body to various hydraulic circuits in the transmission. The manual valve is attached to the shifter and is used to select park, reverse, neutral, drive, etc.

Manual transmission: A manually shifted gearing device that allows a selection of different gear ratios based on engine RPM and road speed.

Manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) sensor: A device used to measure manifold pressure- vacuum and boost.

Mass airflow sensor (MAS): A sensor that measures the volume of air flowing through an engine

Modified valve body: An automatic transmission control assembly that has been modified to produce more efficient, higher performance operation.

Modulator: A vacuum measuring device that regulates transmission line pressure to meet varying load conditions.

Motor mounts: Supports made of hard rubber for the engine and transmission to be secured to the vehicle’s frame.

Multiple-disc clutch: A clutch assembly containing more than one friction clutch.


Needle bearing: A bearing that contains needle-like rollers.

Neutral: The position of a transmission when the engine is disengaged from the drive train.

Neutral Drop: The act of revving the engine on an automatic transmission equipped vehicle in neutral and “dropping” it into gear. This is potentially very damaging and should never be done.

Neutral safety switch: An electrical switch which inhibits starter operation when a vehicle is in gear.

Neutralize: To fall out of gear as if the shifter was placed in neutral.


OEM: An abbreviation for original equipment manufacturer.

One way clutch: See “sprag”.

O ring: A round rubber ring used as a seal.

Orifice: A restriction in the flow of fluid volume. In an automatic transmission orifices are often used to meter apply oil to a clutch pack or band in order to produce a controlled application.

Outer race: The race nearest to the outside of the hub of a roller bearing.

Output shaft: The driven shaft in a transmission.

Overdrive: A transmission having a ratio of less than 1:1 where the output shaft turns at a greater rpm than does the input shaft.

Overhaul: See “rebuild”

Overrunning clutch: See “sprag” and “roller clutch”.


Phosphor bronze: An alloy of copper, lead, tin, and phosphorus that is sometimes used to make bushings.

Pilot: A recess in the back of a crankshaft that serves to locate a torque converter or transmission input shaft in relation to crankshaft centerline.

Press fit: Two components that are mated together via interference fit, usually using a hydraulic press.

Pilot bearing: The bearing in the back of a crankshaft that supports the transmission input shaft.

Pinion bearing: A bearing that is used to support the pinion in a transmission or differential housing.

Planet carrier: The housing that contains the planet gears in a planetary gear set.

Planet pinions: Small gears that orbit around the sun gear, meshing with and rotating between the sun and internal gears.

Powerbrake: In an automatic transmission-equipped vehicle, the act of holding the brake pedal while revving the engine. Also known as “brake torquing”.

Power shift: Shifting a manual transmission without releasing the clutch or accelerator.

Pressure regulator valve: The valve that is responsible for determining line pressure. See “line pressure”

Pump: See “front pump”

Planetary gear set: A set of gears found in most automatic transmissions named after the solar system because of their arrangement and action. This unit consists of a center (sun) gear around which pinion (planet) gears revolve. All gears are in constant mesh.

PWM: Pulse with modulated. See “duty cycle”



Rebuild kit: A kit containing the necessary normal wear components to rebuild a component.

Remanufacture: Similar to rebuilding but usually referring to work performed on an assembly line by several different individuals.

Rework: See rebuild.

Restall: To alter the stall speed of a torque converter.

Reprogramming kit: See “shift kit”

Ravigneaux gear train: A type of planetary gear train with two sun gears, three long and three short planetary pinions, planetary carrier, and ring gear.

Rear-wheel drive: A drivetrain layout that provides power to the rear wheels only.

Release bearing: A term used for a clutch throwout bearing.

Remove and replace (R&R): To remove and replace.

Reverse: The transmission position enabling the vehicle to back up.

Reverse clutch: A multiple-disc clutch that is engaged in reverse gear. See also “high/reverse clutch”

Ring gear: A circular gear.

Ring groove: Grove worn into a transmission case, drum or other component by sealing rings.

Roller bearing: A bearing using rollers within an outer race or ring.

Roller clutch: A one-way clutch containing a number of rollers that operates by wedging on a ramp between an inner and outer race to lock up when the outer race is turned in one direction, and to freewheel when it is turned in the opposite direction. Similar to but often incorrectly referred to as a ‘sprag’.

Rotary flow: Fluid flow within a torque converter during the coupling phase.

Run out: The amount that a rotating object deviates from its plane of rotation.


Sealed bearing: A bearing, such as those found on many rear axle shafts or water pump that is lubricated and permanently sealed by the manufacturer to contain the grease while keeping out contaminants.

Sealing ring: A metal, Teflon or plastic seal, similar to a piston ring that seals hydraulic pressure in an automatic transmission.

Self-adjusting clutch: A mechanism that automatically takes up the slack between the pressure plate and clutch disc.

Separator plate: Metal plate between valve body sections or between a valve body and transmission case that contains orifices and connects passages between the two sections.

Servo: A device that converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical movement, such as a band apply servo.

Shift valve: Valve body valve that is responsible for making a shift.

Shifter: A floor- or steering column-mounted lever on a vehicle used to select and/or shift transmission gears.

Shift forks: A Y-shaped component located between the gears on the main shaft of a transmission that causes the gears to engage or disengage via the sliding clutches.

Slide: An elongated, slipping shift.

Slippage: Incomplete transfer of engine power through a clutch, clutch pack or torque converter to the transmission output shaft.

Slide-bump: An elongated shift that ends with an abrupt bump.

Spin-up: See “flare”

Solenoid: An electronically activated valve to either block or allow fluid flow, depending on whether it is activated or deactivated. An example of this is a transmission shift solenoid.

Speed sensor: An electrical device that can sense the rotational speed of a shaft or member and transmit this information to another device, such as a vehicle computer or speedometer.

Sprag: A one-way clutch used in an automatic transmission, a device containing dog-bone shaped parts, called elements that operate by tilting between an inner and outer race to lock up when the outer race is turned in one direction and to freewheel when it is turned in the opposite direction.

Stator: Internal torque converter responsible for redirecting fluid flow in order to achieve torque multiplication.

Steels: Short for the steel reaction plates which are “sandwiched” between the friction plates in a multi disk clutch pack.

Stepped flywheel: A flywheel having a ledge to which a pressure plate is attached.

Straight cut gear: A term used for spur gear.

Sun gear: Central gear the planet gears mesh with and revolve around.

Synchronizer: A device used in a manual transmission to bring a gear up or down to the speed of the main shaft.

Synthetic oil: A type of lubricant consisting of highly polymerized chemicals.

Shift kit: A kit normally containing drill bits, springs, check balls and other components to modify a valve body, usually for high performance operation. Also known as shift improver kits and reprogramming kits. See also “modified valve body”

Soft part: Any normal wear transmission part that is contained in a rebuild kit and is normally replaced during a transmission overhaul. Examples are rubber seals, gaskets, clutch disks and o rings.


Tensile strength: The maximum tension that a material can handle without breaking.

Thermistor: A devise that changes resistance based on temperature, as in a transmission fluid temperature sensor.

Throttle position sensor (TPS): An electrical sensor that measures throttle opening. See also “variable resistor”.

Throttle valve (TV): Valve, often connected to the throttle via a cable, that regulates transmission line pressure to meet varying load conditions.

Thrust bearing: An engine main bearing that limits front to rear movement of the crankshaft.

Thrust washer: A washer that handles a thrust load and limits front to rear or side to side movement.

Torque management: Computer strategy by which power is reduced during shifts in an automatic transmission to reduce load on the transmission and provide smoother shifting.

Torque converter: Round unit, attached to the crankshaft and flexplate that transfers power from the engine to the transmission input shaft by directing and redirecting fluid flow.

Torque converter clutch (TCC): See “lock-up torque converter”

Torque multiplication: Torque increase as a result of converter action that allows the turbine to revolve slower than the impeller during acceleration and heavy-load conditions at a ratio as much as 2:1.

Torrington bearing: A flat radial needle bearing that often sits between rotating components in an automatic transmission.

Traction Control: Helps limit tire spin during acceleration or on slippery surfaces. Sensors determine if the wheels that are receiving power have lost traction. The system automatically “pumps” the brake and/or reduces engine power to those wheels to keep them from spinning.

Tranny: Slang for transmission.

Trans: Slang for transmission.

Transbrake: Typically a drag race only item, a transbrake is a valve body which has been modified to incorporate an electrical solenoid whose purpose is to simultaneously lock the transmission in forward and reverse when activated. Upon deactivation of the solenoid, the reverse element is disengaged and the vehicle is able to launch forward.

Transaxle: A transmission that also contains the axle assembly, as in most front wheel drive transmissions.

Transducer: A device that converts an input of one type into an output of another type, such as a sensor that converts pressure into an electric signal.

Transfer case: A gearbox that is used on four-wheel-drive vehicles to transfer torque to the front and/or rear axles.

Transfer gears: Gears used to transfer torque from output shaft to the pinion shaft in a transaxle

Transfer clutch: A clutch that applies to send power flow to the rear wheels in an AWD vehicle, An example is the center differential clutch used in Subabru automatic transmissions.

Transmission: A transmission is a gearbox with two or more different ratios used to match the engine’s rpm and torque to various road speeds and driving conditions.

Transmission cooler: A device, often found in the radiator, through which automatic transmission fluid circulates to be cooled by surrounding air or engine coolant. Some vehicles use or can be outfitted with both an oil to engine coolant and an oil to air cooler.

Transverse engine: An engine that is mounted right to left in a vehicle, as in most front- drive applications.

Trouble code: A numeric indicator generated by a computer to indicate a failure in a sensor, circuit, or the computer itself. A code is often accompanied by the check engine or malfunction indicator light.

Turbine: Attached to the transmission input shaft, the turbine is the driven or output component of the torque converter.

Turbo Hydra-Matic: General Motors automatic transmissions manufactured by the Hydro-matic Division.


Underdrive clutch: See “forward clutch” and “input clutch”.

Universal joint (u-joint): A connection, normally in a driveshaft that allows an angular change.

Upshift: A shift from a lower gear to a higher gear ratio.


Vacuum modulator: See “modulator”

Vacuum switch: An electrical switch controlled by a vacuum.

Valve body: Also known as the control valve assembly, the valve body is a component that is comprised of valves, solenoids, an orificed separator plate and a series of passages. The function of the valve body is to act as the “brain” of the automatic transmission- it directs hydraulic pressure to the appropriate clutches and bands to initiate upshifts, down shifts, selection of reverse, converter clutch application, etc.

Variable-pitch stator: A torque converter design that is capable of altering stall speed and torque multiplication based on driving conditions and throttle opening. Also known as a “switch pitch”.

Variable resistor: A resistor that provides for a change in resistance, such as a rheostat or potentiometer. A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a good example of this.

Vehicle speed sensor (VSS): An electronic sensor that is used to provide road speed information to the vehicle’s computer and/or instrument cluster.

Viscous coupling (viscous clutch or VC): A device having input and output members in a multi disc clutch set in a closed chamber filled with fluid. A viscous clutch is typically used in all wheel drive applications to help allow for biasing between front and rear axles.

Viscosity: The resistance of a fluid to flowing, as in the thickness of an oil.

Viscosity rating: A numerical indicator of the viscosity of an oil established by the American Petroleum Institute.

Vortex flow: Flow within a torque converter during the torque multiplication phase of operation.


Wet clutch: A clutch having friction disks that operate in oil, as in automatic transmission multi disk clutch packs.

Wide ratio: A transmission with wide spreads between gear ratios.

WOT: Wide open throttle.



Yoke: A component having internal splines that slide on the transmission output-shaft external splines. An example of this is a driveshaft slip yoke.

DIY Fellowship – To a Better Engineering Education for India

“DIY Fellowship is Possibly for every youth today who wants to serve the country. The youth has become socially conscious.”



The DIY Fellowship program, is an opportunity for India’s brightest and most promising youth, from the nation’s best universities and workplaces, to serve as full-time teachers to Engineering colleges in India. Through this experience of teaching in workshops and working with key education stakeholders like students, faculties, and parents, our Fellows get exposed to the grassroot realities of India’s Engineering education system and begin to cultivate the knowledge, skills, and mindsets necessary to attain positions of leadership in education and identify their role in building a wider maker’s movement for Engineering educational equity in the country.

Our Fellows transform the life paths of students in their workshops, and in turn transform themselves towards leadership in Engineering educational equity.

What is the Problem? :

Inability of Engineering Colleges students and faculties in tier 2, tier 3 or remote areas to obtain quality training in DIY engineering field and keep themselves abreast with Industry trends.

The Solution :

Appoint DIY Fellows in Engineering colleges for a period of 1 to 2 month who should have shown extra-curricular achievements in their projects and are screened and interviewed by DIYguru team to provide the DIY project based training.

Method :

Eligibility Criteria :

1. Been a participant of SAE competitions like BAJA, FSAE, SUPRA, Go Kart, HPVC
2. Should possess knowledge of CAD & CAE Softwares – Solidworks, ANSYS, ADAMS, PROE, CAR SIM, LOTUS
3. Should possess leadership quality and flair to teach and analyze.

Who can apply :

1. B. Tech. / M. Tech. / M.S. / MBA Students
2. Students / Professional preparing for GRE / GMAT / Higher studies and are looking for a fellowship experience.
3. Academia and Industry looking for knowledge exchange.

What will the fellows get :

1. Certificate of DIY Fellowship recognised by national & international bodies
2. Travel & Accomodation in the college
3. Financial Remuneration upto 15K

Application Process : 

Send us your resume stating why do you want to join and you future plans with the Subject line ” Application for DIY Fellowship – 2018 ” at

Free Workshop from BAJA Tutor

*The workshop response is subjected to current availability of trainers in Brazil, South Africa, Canada, India & Germany.

As this is a non-profit initiative, we won’t be charging anything.

Eligibility Criteria –

  1. The workshop is only available to colleges in India, Brazil, Germany, South Africa & Canada
  2. The participating college should either be a fresher or must have not participated more than one time in BAJA Competition.
  3. There should must be at least 80 student participants to avail the workshop.
  4. The college should have at least minimal set up for workshop and software lab facility.

Note: The requesting party needs to bear the trainers accommodation & travel expenses.

Fill the Application Form – Click Here

Research and Marketing in BAJA

Formula Student and BAJA competition series sets a benchmark for engineering students. The series aims to develop enterprising and innovative engineers. They serve as an ideal platform for students to engineer their capabilities to deliver a product. So being versatile is the key here. Think of teams as virtual companies designing and manufacturing a product. So naturally, research and marketing plays a big role.

Team DIYguru nurtures and mentors multifaceted talents. We aim to promote Makers’ culture in India and inspire innovation.  We guide students through complex projects and mentor them in every possible way. Furthermore, we have created extensive knowledge databases specifically for Formula student and BAJA. They are FSAE Tutor and and BAJA tutor.  These databases are regularly updated. In addition to this, industry experts and Formula student, BAJA veterans mentor students and assist them in turning their dreams into reality.

When designing and manufacturing Formula Student vehicle or ATVs, you begin researching into the concepts, procedures, competitions. The databases mentioned help a lot as they have all the resources need for research on a single platform. Also, there are many reference books available through online and offline channels. Books can be found on specific topics also like OFF- Road suspension and handling of BAJA Buggies by Aviansh Singh and Introduction to race car suspension for Formula SAE Enthusiasts by Nikhil Raj.   These books are on suspension designing. There are online discussion forums catering to Formula Student and BAJA competitions. Members of different teams are interacting on these forums so this aids in your project. Along with this, online courses are available. These cover all topics extensively and provide query assistance along with mentor-ship.

Being a benchmark, theses competitions attract a huge crowd. Feeling inspired you take the initiative and start researching into them. Then you define parameters and and do rough budget estimation. After strategically dividing teams you start designing and analyzing with CAD/CAE/CFD software. Consider budget and infrastructure constraints. Then the manufacturing phase begins after material procurement along with detailed designing. Testing and feedback follows.  This is the basic idea of product development life cycle. The final product is launched and marketed

Speaking of marketing, it is neglected by many teams. But it serves as a very important aspect of the competition. By effectively marketing your vehicle and team, you are presenting an idea to a multitude. You are showcasing your talent, innovations and building reputation. By portraying experience and your talents your are building a brand for yourself and your team. This helps in multifaceted ways. Promotional events help to market effectively. Digital marketing, organizing workshops in collaboration with companies are also much needed strategies. Effective marketing aids in sponsorship. Teams with good sponsorships perform better as resources are then available. Sponsorship need not be monetary always. Collaborations and mentorship assistance can also act as sponsorship. As competition increases, vehicles become more sophisticated cost of competing increases. So begin with

  • Documentation. Approvals, proposal letter, Brochure, Presentation. Separate team
  • Identify potential sponsors
  • Research the sponsors
  • Develop relations. Meet in person
  • Effective marketing strategies with proper presentation
  • Set sponsorship slabs. Be open to negotiation
  • Sponsorship is not always meant to be monetary
  • Identify Sponsor needs
  • Use online fund-raising platform


  • Don’t represent team as a racing car team
  • Send proposal as request of assistance for engineering design competitions.
  • Show reach in social media and print media
  • Portray yourself as a medium of marketing for the potential sponsor
  • Promotion of sponsor as per sponsorship contract and slabs
  • Alumni contacts and fund
  • Mass mails don’t work
  • Cherish and maintain relations. (Very Important)

(Automobile industry is facing a shortage of skilled talent in the field of Green-Technology. Help fill that gap with DIYguru’s Hybrid and Electric Vehicle (HEV) curriculum. The coursework provides advanced knowledge and hands-on labs in the design, analysis, control, calibration, and operating characteristics of HEVs.) Click on this to register. 

To clear your fundamentals in Automobiles click here.


eBAJA : Electric Driven ATV Online Course by DIYguru

Electric mobility is making its presence felt, more so in the developed markets of Europe and the USA than in emerging markets.

In India, where adequate infrastructure for electric vehicles is yet to be established in a big way, most OEMs are developing e-variants of their existing models, probably to be ready for the e-revolution as and when it happens in the country and when the government offers enough incentives to make these eco-friendly vehicles viable for buyers and profitable for their manufacturers.

That e-mobility will be, to some extent, part of the country’s future can be easily gauged from the fact that the annual Baja SAEIndia contest, which is mainly about petrol-driven all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), has seen a surge in the number of  participants for the electric-driven ATV competition.

DIYguru in partnership with Vecmocon Technologies, an IIT Delhi Startup working on Electric Mobility, promoting Make-In-India and a clean alternative has launched this course to promote electric mobility in India.

Unless you are living under a rock, by this time it is known that petrol and diesel vehicles are not a part of the foreseeable future. Pollution is way over tolerance, fossil fuel prices are through the roof and we must do something about climate change. (Yes folks! It is real). After more than a century of peddling vehicles that pollute, automobile manufacturers are making a transition to cleaner alternatives. Big names in the market are proclaiming the age of electricity, promising to move way from petrol and diesel-run vehicles.

Technology is available and rapidly advancing to cure our addiction to oil, stabilize the climate and maintain our standard of living, all at the same time. Electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity and certainly in mind space. They are cleaner and more efficient, and even fun (think Tesla).  An electric vehicle has far fewer moving parts than a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle. There’s no need for liquid fuels or oil changes. There’s no transmission or timing belt to fail when you least expect it. In fact, most of the maintenance costs associated with an internal combustion engine are eliminated. Low running costs, minimal maintenance costs make it perfect to fit the famously value conscious Indian consumer mentality.

Development of cheaper battery systems, efficient power grids, cleaner electricity aids manufacturing of electric vehicles. As industry slowly shifts to electric alternatives, a surge in demand for skilled engineers and workers is inevitable. India is estimated to have more than 30.81 million electric vehicles sales by 2040. By 2022, the world-wide electric vehicle value chain will likely be greater than $250 billion (Source: World Bank Study).  In a plan issued in May, 2017, titled “India Leaps Ahead: Transformative Mobility Solutions for All,” the government think tank, National Institution for Transforming India sets a target date of 2030 to end sales of new cars with combustion engines.

Energy prices, environmental concerns, and fuel economy targets are driving the demand for hybrid and electric vehicle technicians now and into the future. Having the right skills is crucial to be a part of this transition.  Hence team DIYguru in collaboration with Vecmocon Technologies, an electric mobility startup incubated at IIT Delhi has prepared a one-of a-kind certified Electric vehicle course.  The coursework provides advanced knowledge and hands-on labs in the design, analysis, control, calibration, and operating characteristics of EVs. Whether you are a graduate or undergraduate student, you can integrate any number of these courses into your degree.

Ever since the clarion call given by the Modi government to electrify all cars by 2030, manufacturers have gone into overdrive to prepare for the impending new normal. These include setting up of battery manufacturing plants, investing in setting up charging stations, investment in product and component development.

When we abandon petrol and diesel, our entire world is going to change. A revolution is coming to the Automobile sector. We have become a part of it. The time is yours now.


Training & Workshop on Vehicle Dynamics

This training seminar is said to be one of the most intense experiences you’ll have learning vehicle dynamics in a classroom setting. It is designed to push participants to go beyond experience and intuition and begin to ask “why,” “how,” and “how much” certain factors affect the performance of a vehicle. Participants will interact with each other, watch live demonstrations, and ask questions to get collaborative feedback. You’ll cover every aspect of vehicle dynamics and wrap up with data acquisition and analysis.

Why should you attend?

– In this seminar, you will learn the State-ofthe-Art practices and in-depth knowledge of Automotive Vehicle Dynamics. This is a comprehensive program on Vehicle Dynamics that combines lectures with workshop.
The instructional methods include extensive use of examples, case studies, videos, and animations. Participants will be exposed to the latest technologies for simulating vehicle dynamics for virtual testing. Virtual test processes are illustrated for evaluating regulated performance modes such as those contained in the Indian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, ECE regulations and performance-based Standards for vehicles.

Who should attend?

– B Tech /M Tech Students Participating in BAJA/ SUPRA/Formula SAE Competitions and are seeking to expand their knowledge and understanding of major systems of vehicles responsible for dynamic performance.


Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh, India  – December 3rd Week
Dates yet to finalized

Time: 5 Days

Trainer’s Profile: Click Here

Application form: Apply Here

To register for this event, please contact: or call Akash Jain at 011-654-88887.

Early Bird Registration Fee: 10,000 including Accommodation for 7 Days.

All participants will be awarded a certificate by DIYguru & BAJA Tutor.

Training Content

Part 1: begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of vehicle dynamics–a quick review of definitions and terminology to avoid any confusion due to different automotive cultures or habits. Then you’ll move onto tires and discuss why and how much the grip, balance, and performance of a car is decided by the contact patch forces and deflections. The last section is spent on aero maps, gurney flaps, and static and dynamic ride height settings of aerodynamics.

In Part 2, aerodynamics will wrap up with forces and moments in the suspension stiffness choice. Then, you’ll move into kinematics and learn about setting up and designing your suspension. You’ll also cover steady state basics and start the steady state weight transfer section–this is where you’ll become familiar with  fundamentals and understand how the elastic and geometric weight transfers affect the balance of the car. At this point, you’ll start to develop a clearer picture of what was learned in Part 1 with tires and the correlation with what is occurring in the vehicle.

In Part 3, you’ll finish up the weight transfer discussion that started in Part 2. Then, you’ll go through the important yaw moment diagram methodology where you’ll begin to understand how aerodynamics, roll centers, anti-roll bars, and spring stiffness influence the balance of the car as well as its control and stability. Once you’ve covered the vehicle dynamics from tire to roof, you’ll learn important methodology in analyzing data. You’ll wrap up the seminar with data acquisition and new ways to use your data to enhance and understand vehicle performance.

Tires are the only elements of your racecar in contact with the ground, and as such, it is vital to understand why and how much the grip, balance, and performance of a car is decided by the contact patch forces and deflections. We’ll also cover tire testing, analysis, and how to use tire data in racecar design and setup.

After a review of aerodynamics basics, we’ll focus on the understanding of aero-maps, wings, gurney flaps, static and dynamic ride height settings, and how to integrate them into the design of a suspension.

See why poorly designed kinematics cannot be “patched” by springs, anti-roll bars, and shocks; and why (from the design to on-track testing and racing) understanding the effects of kinematics is essential to the efficient use of race tires. We’ll also explain the essential differences between kinematic and force roll centers as well as kinematic and force pitch centers.

Understand, step-by-step, the weight transfer calculation in steady state. See the influence of springs and anti-roll bars on weight transfer distribution as well as the influence of tire vertical stiffness and chassis torsional stiffness. You’ll receive a guided exercise on weight transfer calculations under combined lateral and longitudinal accelerations.

After a brief description of damper technology, we’ll focus on the damper settings’ influence on tire load, tire load consistency, and racecar performance. A guided exercise related to spring and damping calculations as well as selection and fine-tuning of these suspension elements will help you to diminish the amount of time spent in testing and improve your understanding of simple simulation tools

We’ll explain both technical and practical aspects of data acquisition used to develop racecar and race driver performance. This knowledge will help you appreciate the challenges and satisfactions you face with data acquisition system understanding, choice, installation, and calibration as well as efficient data analysis. We’ll focus on mathematical data analysis and its direct application to race driver performance, racecar tire performance, and endurance evaluation.

Young and experienced racecar engineers alike have acquired new ideas, new engineering principles, and new perspectives related to car design and testing due to this seminar. You will receive practical information and perspectives on in-shop and on-track car setup. Our “tips and tricks” focus on engineering and constitute a practical application of vehicle dynamics knowledge.

What are you going to Learn?

  1. The cost-efficient reasons why the competitive, amateur and professional racing teams have decided to use data acquisition systems.
  2. Why drivers skills, intuition, and experience are indispensable but not sufficient to win races.
  3. How much data acquisition costs, how much it can improve your car’s performance, what is the minimum knowledge and experience you need to get the best of it and how hard (if not impossible…) it will be to be competitive and efficient without it.
  4. Why a good engineer is not only the one who finds the best setup but also who understands WHY and HOW MUCH a setup change does affect its car performance.
  5. In an extremely competitive racing world where dozens of drivers can be within a few 1/10 of a second a lap, where testing time is restricted, where circuit or special stages are less and less available and more and more expensive, where sponsors want immediate results.
  6. What do you want to work on first when you have understeer or oversteer.: tire pressures, camber caster, toe, springs, antirollbars, shocks, front or rear wing front or rear gurney, anti dive or antisquat? So many solutions. But only one will work better than any others. Only one will preserve your tires better than any others. The seminar will tell you how to find the order in which you want to work on the different setup parameters.
  7. How to notice and quantify on the data acquisition the different kinds of understeer (oversteer): braking, turn in, coasting or power U/S (O/S)
  8. How to analyze data to quantify how much the driver is under using or over using his front or rear or both end tires.
  9. How to analyze the data to understand the driver style and adapt the car setup to it.
  10. How to “read” the tires by visual, tire temperatures and data analysis.
  11. Why it is important to hit the brakes pedal as hard as possible in the first few meters (feet) of the braking zone.
  12. Why, for the same exact trajectory in a corner there could be several steering wheel inputs. One driving style will be more efficient and will save the tires better than any other.
  13. How to quantify the U/S and the O/S just by looking at the steering trace and compare it to a very slow lap.
  14. The speed that any data acquisition system measures is not the real speed. Why and what are the differences.
  15. Why 80 % of your corner speed is determined in the first 10 % of the corner.
  16. Why the roll center position and its vertical and lateral movements are so important at the corner entry.
  17. Why modern racing cars demand less and less shock absorber low speed bump control.
  18. Why modern racing tires and cars demand a less aggressive driving style in the slow corners and a more aggressive driving style in the fast corners.
  19. How to organize driver briefing and debriefing sessions.
  20. Why changing the car ballast position (or the driver seat) by only a few cm (inches) could change the handling of your car and the way your tires wear.
  21. How to choose the spring stiffness and the shock setup of a car you have never worked with before.
  22. How to make an aeromap.
  23. How to find the best tire pressure for the race and for qualifying.
  24. Why a shock absorber is like an antirollbar which works only at the entry and exit phases of the corner.
  25. How to decide if you want to work on your shock high speed or low speed adjustments in order to improve your car performance.
  26. Why you need to completely change your brake fluid after a race in the rain.
  27. How to use RPM and speed data and a spreadsheet to calculate the best gear ratios in less than 5 minutes.
  28. How to calibrate pushrods or spring perch strain gauges.
  29. How to choose what you want to work on first: maximum total lateral grip or car balance.
  30. All the information the data acquisition engineer and the race engineer will learn by comparing all the data on different circuits (rallies) at the end of the season and how it can lead them to better setup for the next season.
  31. How to setup your brake balance by analyzing your data.
  32. How much you need to change your front and rear ride heights when you change you front and/or rear springs.
  33. Why gurney flaps work better in the slow corners.
  34. How to adjust your tire cold pressure to weather change.
  35. How to increase your tires temperature by changing your suspension pickup point.
  36. Why it is important to know your tire vertical stiffness.
  37. Why your tire vertical stiffness can change as the tires wear out, despite keeping the same running pressure.
  38. How to use strain gauge, gyros, laser sensors, what you can learn about your car thanks to these sensors and how to cope without them.
  39. How to establish a quick and efficient technical dialogue between the driver and the engineer.
  40. Why we put negative camber on a road course car.
  41. Why is some cases, a softer rear antiroll bar could give less turn in understeer.
  42. Why on most stock car oval races you don’t want to have a front roll centermoving towards the inside corner.
  43. How to calculate and measure lateral and longitudinal weight transfer.
  44. How to measure the track slope and banking angle with the car at speed on therace track.
  45. How to analyze the driver style just by looking at the throttle and the steering data.
  46. What kind of technical data you should ask your race tire manufacturer (what kind of technical information he should give you).
  47. Where on the car to install a pitot tube.
  48. What is the best choice of sensors for a given budget.
  49. How the front and rear roll centers vertical and lateral movement in heave and inroll influence your cars handling.
  50. Why on some road tracks it is worth it having asymmetrical cambers and corners weights.
  51. How to efficiently use your brake pad manufacturer information.
  52. The best ways for a young engineer to find a job in racing.
  53. How to organize your data and the way you want to look at it on telemetry or as soon as you have downloaded it from the car.
  54. The best way to integrate the data acquisition engineer duties with the driver and the race engineer job.
  55. Why front toe out improves braking and rear toe in increase traction.
  56. Why in some case reverse Ackerman steering geometry is better than standardAckerman and the best way to modify it.
  57. How to calculate and measure antidive and antisquat.
  58. How to draw a line over which data are really useful and under which they couldbe real ‘black holes’.
  59. How to setup the dashboard in order to help the driver to help himself.
  60. The concept of magic numbers that you can find on your setup sheet and on your data in order to quickly improve your car setup.
  61. The 52 useful types of information you can learn about your car handling with just 4 linear potentiometers.
  62. The kind of information your race tire manufacturer is expecting from you in order to help him to better help you.
  63. Why and how much we want to limit the amount of camber changes.
  64. How 5 minutes from the end of a qualifying session, just by looking at some magic numbers on your data acquisition you can decide what exactly to do to your tire pressures to improve significantly your position on the grid.
  65. Why and in which conditions you want to have a roll center over or under the ground and by how much.
  66. Why a kinematics software should be 3D, take the front and the rear of the car as a whole and should take into account the vertical, lateral and longitudinal tire deformations, the suspension and chassis compliance.
  67. Why is some case more rear brake bias could give less turn in oversteer.
  68. How to setup a car with your shock speed histogram.
  69. How to analyze data in order to compare 2 drivers style and have each of them getting the best of the other.
  70. How to measure your cars aerodynamic drag.
  71. How to quantify understeer and oversteer in steady state and transient conditions.
  72. How to find the correct tire rolling radius to input in the data acquisition software to measure the cars speed.
  73. How to measure a differential efficiency.
  74. How to measure the tire vertical stiffness when the car is on the race track (special stage)
  75. How to write math functions for your data analysis.
  76. If, when and how much you want to filter data.
  77. What 3D kinematics, vehicle dynamics and lap time simulation software is available on the market and at which price.
  78. How to measure real shock force (not shock dyno forces) when the car is on the racetrack.
  79. Why increasing the rear shock low speed rebound forces decreases the turn in oversteer on some circuits and increases it on others.
  80. Why front and rear negative camber on the inside wheel is not a good thing for your turn in performance.
  81. That you can not decide the amount of camber variation you want to get from the design of your car suspension geometry until you know your tire lateral stiffness.
  82. Why the less loaded tire is most of the time the one that has the best coefficient of friction.
  83. What you could do with slip angle sensors.
  84. How race tire manufacturers are measuring lateral and longitudinal tire grip, and how you could measure these yourself on your racecar while on the race track(special stage).
  85. How to measure the tire rolling resistance.
  86. Why you need to know as much about your pitch centers as you need to know about your roll centers.
  87. What kind of test you can do on your race track to know the level of Ackerman(or reverse Ackerman) geometry which will get the most of your front tires.
  88. Why it could useful to have front and rear bump and roll steer, how much and how to create it.
  89. Why you will loose 3 % of downforce and get more understeer if the ambient temperature raises by only 5 degrees.
  90. Why, if your car is perfectly balanced but is bottoming in the straight away, you need to raise the rear right height 3 to 5 times more than you raise the front ride height.
  91. Why and how it is possible to have the car a few feet ahead of yours to get a sudden aerodynamic oversteer with having any understeer in your car.
  92. How much to change the front and rear ride height to decrease the amount of power understeer (oversteer).
  93. Why an independent suspension has 5 links.
  94. How, during the suspension geometry design, to find the best compromise between camber variation in bump and in roll.
  95. Why and how much the left and right antisquat and antidive characteristics change with the static and dynamic camber and with the steering.
  96. Why it is important to know your KPI and caster trails and how much these change with the lateral and longitudinal tire deflection.
  97. The specifics of different suspension types (double wishbones, Mac Pherson, stock car, rear GT#, V8 Australian suspension).
  98. How to measure centers of gravity and the roll, pitch and yaw moments of inertia.
  99. Four different methods to get a non linear wheel rate.
  100. The advantages and the dangers of using bump rubbers.
  101. Why and how much increasing the antisquat and antidive will increase the car’s vibration in braking.



Adventure sports in Dharamshala

  • Paragliding
  • Rock climbing
  • Rappelling
  • Flying Fox
  • Urban Zipline
  • Trekking
  • Night Camping
  • River Crossing

Places to visit in Dharamshala

  • Triund hills
  • Norbolingka Institute
  • Dalai Lama Temple complex
  • HPCA Stadium
  • Tibetan Museum
  • Kalachakra Temple
  • Bhagsu Waterfall
  • Church of St. John
  • Bhagsunath Temple
  • Jawalamukhi Devi Temple

Places around Dharamshala

  • Bir and Billing (60km)
  • Palampur (35km)
  • Barot (110km)
  • Chamba and Khajjiar (130km)
  • Dalhousie (120km)